Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta – Wrong Interpretations

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Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta – Wrong Interpretations

Revised October 25, 2016; April 11, 2017; September 13, 2017; November 25, 2017; January 26, 2018; May 25, 2019; August 6, 2019; January 11, 2020; August 23, 2022


1. No other factor has contributed to helping keep Nibbāna hidden in the past many hundreds of years than the incorrect interpretations of anicca as just “impermanence” and anatta as just “no-self.” If one can find even a single instance in the Pāli Tipiṭaka (not translations) that describes anicca and anatta that way, please let me know at Also, before quoting English translations of the Tipiṭaka, please read the post,Misinterpretation of Anicca and Anatta by Early European Scholars.”

I consider this series of posts on “anicca, dukkha, anatta” to be the most important on the website. Reading the posts in the given order could be very beneficial.

A Buddha comes to this world to reveal three words and eight letters (in Pāli). “Attakkarā thīnapadā Sambuddhena pakāsithā, na hī sīla vatan hotu uppajjati Tathāgatā.” That means “a Buddha (Tathāgata) is born NOT just to show how to live a moral life, but to reveal three words with eight letters to the world.” So far, I have not seen this verse in the Tipiṭaka. It is likely to have been in an old commentary.

These three words with eight letters are anicca, dukkha, and anatta. (when written in Sinhala/Pāli: අනිච්ච දුක්ඛ අනත්ත but with last two letters in each term in the “old script” combined to become one, so the number of letters becomes eight instead of 11. I was able to find only අනත්‍ථ for අනත්ත, but you can see how four letters become three there).

Anicca is pronounced “anichcha,” which rhymes with “picture.”

WebLink: Listen to pronounciation of : anicca

Dukkha pronounced similarly, duk+kha.

WebLink: Listen to pronounciation of : dukkha

Anatta is pronounced “anaththa.”

WebLink: Listen to pronounciation of : anatta

See “Pop-up Pāli Glossary with Pronunciation” for more meanings of Pāli terms and sound files on pronunciations.

2. Asubha (“non-auspicious” or “unfruitful” nature) is another characteristic of nature. It appears with anicca, dukkha, and anatta in several suttā, for example, “WebLink: suttacentral: Vipallāsa Sutta (AN 4.49).”

Furthermore, the word, Tilakkhaṇa, does not appear in the Tipiṭaka to my knowledge.

However, as discuss below, anicca, dukkha, and anatta appear as a group in many suttā. Thus it is justifiable to clump them together as Tilakkhaṇa.

Why Are Tilakkhaṇa so Important?

3. The Buddha clarified these “three characteristics of this world” in his first sutta; see, “Does the First Noble Truth Describe only Suffering?.”

These are the three primary characteristics of “this world.” Buddha comes to the world to reveal the true nature of the world.

Any moral person instinctively knows (and most religions teach) how to live a righteous life; see, “Buddha Dhamma – In a Chart.”

The Buddha stated that if one comprehends the true nature of “this world,” as codified in these three words, then one would attain the Stream Entry (Sotāpanna) stage of Nibbāna; see, “Why is Correct Interpretation of Anicca, Dukkha, Anatta so Important?.”

4. Therefore, a good understanding of the words anicca, dukkha, and anatta is critical. If one sticks to incorrect interpretation of these three words, no matter how much effort one exerts, there is no possibility of attaining the Sotāpanna stage. Even in most Theravāda English texts, these three words have incorrect translations: impermanence, suffering, and “no-soul” or “no-self.” The correct meanings are the following.

Nothing in this world can be maintained to one’s satisfaction (anicca).

When one strives to achieve that, it leads to suffering (dukkha). However, many people try to gain “happiness” by resorting to immoral deeds, ending in the apāyā. That is how one becomes genuinely helpless.

Striving to achieve the impossible (i.e., seeking happiness in worldly things) only leads to suffering. Thus, one’s efforts are not only unfruitful, but one becomes helpless in the rebirth process (anatta).

Pāli Words for Impermanence Are “Adduvaṁ” or “Aniyata

5. The Pāli word for impermanence is NOT anicca; it is addhuva or aniyata. For example, “Jīvitaṁ aniyataṁ, Maraṇaṁ niyataṁ” means, “life is not permanent, death is.” [addhuva :[adj.] unstable; impermanent. aniyata :[adj.] uncertain; not settled.]

addhuvaṁ jīvitaṁ, dhuvaṁ maraṇaṁ” means the same thing.

Therefore, the critical mistake was in translating the original Pāli word anicca to Sanskrit as “anitya,” which does mean impermanence.

This term, “dhuva” comes in the Brahmanimantanika Sutta (Majjhima Nikāya 49), where the Baka Brahma says his existence is permanent; see #12 of Anidassana Viññāṇa – What It Really Means.”

Anatta Is Not “Self” or “No-Self”

6. Now let us examine the damage done by translating the original Pāli word anatta to Sanskrit as “anātma.”

At the time of the Buddha, there were two opposing views on the idea of a “self.” One camp believed in an unchanging “soul” (ātma) associated with a being. This camp thus corresponds to the world’s major religions today with the concept that when one dies, one’s soul goes to heaven or hell.

The opposing camp argued that there is “no-soul” (anātma) and that when one dies, there is nothing that survives the death. This view is the materialistic view today that our minds arise from matter, and thus, there is nothing that survives death.

7. The Buddha said it was neither. There is no “self” permanently associated with a living being: both the mind and the body are in constant flux (see the Section on “The Grand Unified Theory of Dhamma”), and thus there is no “soul” or an “unchanging self.” See “What Reincarnates? – Concept of a Lifestream.”

However, one can choose how to respond to an external stimulus. Therefore, it is also incorrect to say there is “no-self.”

Furthermore, there is continuity at death based on cause-and-effect (Paṭicca Samuppāda; see, “Paṭicca Samuppāda – Introduction”).

The new living being is a continuation of the old living being, just as an older man is a continuation of the process from the baby stage. Change is there at every MOMENT, based on cause-and-effect. The “new” is dependent on the “old.”

That is also why it is incorrect to say that an Arahant is annihilated at death (i.e., at Parinibbāna). See “Yamaka Sutta (SN 22.85) – Arahanthood Is Not Annihilation but End of Suffering.”

They Are Related to Each Other

8. The Buddha stated that the three characteristics of “this world” are RELATED to each other:

yadaniccaṁ taṁ dukkhaṁ, yaṁ dukkhaṁ tadanattā (“yad aniccaṁ taṁ dukkhaṁ, yaṁ dukkhaṁ tad anattā”), i.e.,

“if something is anicca, dukkha arises, and one becomes helpless (anatta).” Note that yaṁ” and “yad” have the same meaning and are used interchangeably. In the same way,yadidaṁ comes from yad idaṁ.”

(In the Saṁyutta Nikāya (Anicca Vagga), many suttā including WebLink: suttacentral: Ajjhattanicca Sutta (SN 35.1), WebLink: suttacentral: Bahiranicca Sutta (SN 35.4), and WebLink: suttacentral: Yadanicca sutta (SN 22.15) have the above verse.)

9. Now, let us see what happens if we take anicca to be impermanent and anatta to be “no-soul.” Then the above verse reads, “if something is not permanent, suffering arises, and because of that one becomes “no-self.”

Many people think since one’s body is impermanent, suffering arises. But the suttā mentioned above describe this for all six internal senses (Ajjhattanicca or Ajjhatta Anicca Sutta) and for everything external sensed by the six sense faculties (Bāhiranicca or Bāhira Anicca Sutta). Therefore, that verse holds for anything and everything “in this world.”

Thus if a headache becomes impermanent (i.e., if it goes away,) that will lead to happiness. Thus, impermanence does not necessarily lead to suffering. But if we cannot handle a headache the way we want (i.e., cannot get rid of it), then that will lead to suffering!

As we will show in the next post (“Anicca – True Meaning”), the correct translation holds for any case.

10. The opposite of the above statement must be correct, too (in mathematical logic, this is not correct generally, but in this particular case, it can be shown to be right. It is due to the assumption that “dukkha” depends only on “nicca” or “anicca” and no other factor).

Let us consider the incorrect interpretations that say:

“if something is permanent, suffering does not arise, and because of that, it implies a “self.”

How can one stop suffering if one has a permanent headache or a sickness? And in what sense does a “self” arise?

There are many things in this world, if it becomes permanent, would lead to suffering: a disease, poverty, association with someone disliked, moving away from a loved one, etc.

Thus we can see that anicca and anatta do not mean impermanence and “no-self.”

However, if we take the correct translation, we can show that the reverse statement also holds. as discussed in the next post: “Anicca – Inability to Keep What We Like.”

Everyone Knows Anything in This World is Impermanent

11. Permanence and impermanence are inseparable PROPERTIES of living beings, objects, and events. On the other hand, nicca/anicca are PERCEPTIONS IN ONE’S MIND about them.

In the long run, we cannot maintain anything to our satisfaction (including “our” own body), which is anicca. And because of that, we become distraught, and that is dukkha. And since we cannot prevent this sequence of events, we are truly helpless in the long run (nothing of real substance left in the end.) That is anatta.

Here is a video that illustrates the concept of anicca clearly:

We must realize that we all will undergo this inevitable change as we get old. No matter how hard we try, it is not possible to maintain ANYTHING to our satisfaction. It is the nature of “this world”: anicca.

Of course, any of these celebrities (or their fans) will be saddened to see that comparison in the video above. They have not been able to maintain their bodies to their satisfaction. However, a person on bad terms with any of these celebrities could be happy to see those pictures since he/she would like to see something terrible happen to that celebrity.

12. Thus, “impermanence” is inevitable; it is a property of anything in this world. But “anicca” is a perception in someone’s mind. That perception CAN be changed; that is how one gets rid of suffering.

In the above case, celebrities’ bodies ARE impermanent; but that did not necessarily cause suffering to ALL. It caused pain to only those who did not like them getting old. If they had any enemies, those would be happy to see them losing their “good looks.”

Impermanence is a fact; see “The Grand Unified Theory of Dhamma.” But impermanence is NOT the MEANING of anicca.

These pictures provide the visual impact that we do not usually get. We don’t see changes in ourselves because the change is gradual.

13. A Buddha is not needed to show that impermanence is an inherent characteristic of our universe. Scientists are well aware of that, but they have not attained Nibbāna. Anicca is a profound concept with several meanings, and they are all related. Here are three ways to look at it:

Anicca – Inability to Keep What We Like” (listed above).

Anicca – Repeated Arising/Destruction.”

Anicca – Worthlessness of Worldly Things.”

Anicca – The Incessant Distress (“Pīḷana”)

14. Finally, the Buddha said, “Sabbe Dhammā anattā.” So, what does “all dhammā are “no-self” mean (if anatta meant “no-self”)? Dhammā means “to bear” and includes those kammic energies that can bring in the future vipāka including future rebirths. We strive to make such Dhammā which will only bring NET suffering in the future. Nothing in this world is of any real value in the end. That is anatta nature.

This is systematically explained in “Origin of Life” and specifically in the post, “Dhammā, Kamma, Saṅkhāra, Mind – Critical Connections.”

Another keyword that has lost its true meaning is “saŋ”; see, “What is “Saŋ”? Meaning of Sansāra (or Saṁsāra).”

Possible Historical Reasons for Mistranslations

15. We can see the origins of some of these incorrect translations by looking at how Buddha Dhamma was transmitted over time. For details, see “Historical Background.”

For about 500 years after the Parinibbāna of the Buddha, the Pāli Tipiṭaka was transmitted orally from generation to generation of bhikkhus, who faithfully passed down the Pāli Canon. Of course, it had been DESIGNED for easy oral transmission.

See “Preservation of the Dhamma” for a discussion on this aspect. The original teachings of the Buddha are still intact.

16. Then, it was written down in Sinhala script for the first time in 29 BCE in Sri Lanka. Pāli is a phonetic language that does not have an alphabet.

The Tipiṭaka was never translated to any other language until the Europeans discovered “Buddhism” in the late 1600s; see “Background on the Current Revival of Buddha Dhamma.”

Tipiṭaka was not translated to even the Sinhala language until 2005.

17. When Rhys Davis and others started doing those English translations, they were heavily influenced by Sanskrit Mahāyāna sutras and Vedic literature. Think about it: when the Europeans first started discovering all these different Pāli and Sanskrit documents, they must have been overwhelmed by the complexities.

It took them some time to separate Buddhism from Hinduism, and in the process, some concepts got mixed up; see “Misinterpretation of Anicca and Anatta by Early European Scholars.”

For example, They ASSUMED that “anatta” was the same as “anātma,” which is a Sanskrit word, with a different meaning, i.e., “no-self.” Similarly, they took “anicca” to mean the same as Sanskrit “anitya,” which does mean “impermanent.”

It Will Take Time to Untangle These Issues

18. The worst was that even contemporary Sinhala scholars like Malasekara (a doctoral student of Rhys Davis) “learned” Buddhism from the Europeans and thus started using wrong interpretations. Other Sinhala scholars like Kalupahana and Jayathilake also learned “Buddhism” at universities in the United Kingdom.

Following the original translations by Rhys Davis, Eugene Burnouf, Olcott, and others, those Sinhala scholars also write books in both English and Sinhala. Of course, scholars in other Buddhist countries did the same in their languages, and the incorrect interpretations spread worldwide.

To correct this grave problem, we must go back to the Tipiṭaka in Pāli and start the process there.

Pāli suttā should not be translated word to word. Most of the suttā are condensed and written in a style conducive to oral transmission; see, “Sutta Interpretation – Uddesa, Niddesa, Paṭiniddesa.”

Commentaries were written to explain critical concepts in the Tipiṭaka, and only three of those original commentaries have survived. We need to rely heavily on Paṭisambhidāmagga, Peṭakopadesa, and Nettippakarana.

Instead, most people rely on incorrect commentaries written in more recent years, especially Buddhaghosa’s Visuddhimagga. For details, see “Buddhaghosa and Visuddhimagga – Historical Background.” However, Buddhaghosa did not change the meanings of the words anicca, dukkha, and anatta. That is likely to have happened in more recent times, as I explained above). But he incorporated many other Hindu concepts like breath and kasiṇa meditation; see, “Buddhaghosa’s Visuddhimagga – A Focused Analysis.”

19. It is also important to note that mass printing was not available until recent years and became common only in the 1800s; see, “WebLink: Printing press.”

Thus mass production of books became possible only with the new printing presses in the 1800s. By that time, key concepts had been mistranslated.

In the early days, Tipiṭaka was written on specially prepared leaves and needed to be re-written by hand every 100-200 years before they degraded. So, we must be grateful to the bhikkhus in Sri Lanka who did this dutifully for almost 2000 years.

Sinhala language (both spoken and written) changed over the past 2000 years. The need to re-write the Tipiṭaka every 100 or so years made sure that any changes in Sinhala script were taken into account; see #21 of Misinterpretation of Anicca and Anatta by Early European Scholars.”

Other Related Issues

20. I came across another problem in a recent online forum. People are debating the meanings of the words “anatta” (අනත්ත in Sinhala) and “anattha” (අනත්ථ in Sinhala). They mean the same, but more emphasis is added to the latter word.

So, most people write it as “anatta.” It does not matter how one writes it, as long as one understands the meaning as “with no refuge” or “without essence,” and NOT “no-self.”

But it does mean “it is not fruitful to take anything in this world to be mine.”

21. Two more main misconceptions are prevalent today. They not only block the path to Nibbāna but are micchā diṭṭhi that could be responsible for rebirth in the apāyā. I am not trying to scare anyone, but “making adhamma to be dhamma is a serious offense.”

Misinterpretation of breath meditation as Ānāpānasati: “Is Ānāpānasati Breath Meditation?.”

Insisting that the gandhabba (manomaya kāya) is a Mahāyāna concept: “Gandhabba State – Evidence from Tipiṭaka.”

22. All these misconceptions are not the fault of current Theravādins; they have been handed down hundreds of years, as explained in the “Historical Background.” However, it makes no sense to adhere to them when substantial evidence is presented against them, per the above posts, and many others on this website.

Of course, no one should be able to insist, “this is the only truth, and nothing else is the truth.” But the truth can be verified to one’s satisfaction by critically examining the evidence. I am open to discussing any valid contrary evidence. We need to sort out the truth for the benefit of all.

23. Finally, it may not be possible to comprehend anicca, dukkha, and anatta. One must first follow the mundane path to learn basic concepts like kamma and rebirth.

More details in “Transition to Noble Eightfold Path.”

A systematic approach at “Living Dhamma.”

24. Anicca and anatta are complex Pāli words that cannot be translated into English directly. No English word can convey the meaning of anicca (or anatta). The following subsections discuss those two complex Pāli words:

Anicca – True Meaning

Anattā – A Systematic Analysis

July 10, 2020: A new series of posts on “Origin of Life” systematically explain Tilakkhaṇa and Paṭicca Samuppāda and also makes the connection between them.